juvenile delinquency articles

Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. Existent caseloads (e.g., probation, parole) and their supervising officers are also adjusting to changes in practices and protocols. In lieu of more tangible, “real time” data estimating these impacts, we base our predictions on empirical knowledge and theories of juvenile delinquency. Statistical briefing book. Next, they become runners and may eventually graduate to being dealers. Such resources include active employees who are essential to public safety as well as effective rehabilitation and care of system-involved youths, but who are also equally at risk of contracting COVID-19. For instance, youths should have approved living situations that are safe and appropriate for placement. We recognize that using mainstream platforms like Zoom or FaceTime for anything justice-related or having to do with juveniles presents data security and privacy concerns (National Council on Crime and Delinquency, 2020; NJDC, 2020). 45–64). These topics naturally dovetail into the related areas of juvenile case processing and juvenile courts during COVID-19. This paper considers the impact of these events on youths, their behaviors, and how we, as a system and society, respond to juvenile delinquency. In sum, maintaining youths’ connections with the outside world is key. Manutrition. OJJDP National Report Series. Feld, B. C. (2017). Classification for effective rehabilitation: Rediscovering psychology. All authors contributed and commented on previous versions of the manuscript. As of May 15th, an estimated 415 confined juveniles and 477 employees were positive for COVID-19; similarly dated graphs of these data show infections were still on the rise (Rovner, 2020). While we describe jurisdictional variations in the development and implementation of protocols in response to the pandemic, we also highlight commonalities observed across what are typically widely varying juvenile justice systems. Yet, tens of thousands of juveniles remain confined and detained in facilities staffed 24/7 by rotations of essential employees. Our appraisals of these topics are made after nearly 2 months of national COVID-19 mitigation measures, like social distancing and limited “non-essential” movement outside the home but also as states are gradually lifting stricter directives and reopening economic sectors. During such unprecedented times, it is even more integral for decision-makers to ensure a certain level of continuity and proper aftercare services. Thirdly, in other states, like Maryland and North Carolina for example, youths cannot be released without formal juvenile court involvement. As social restrictions are lifted and small group gatherings become permissible, such “free time” may increasingly be spent associating with peers. You can change your choices at any time by visiting Your Privacy Controls. This adage similarly applies to youths who are justice-system involved and find themselves under community supervision, detained, or committed amid the pandemic. https://apnews.com/ba28bfeaaa53a05ea4b8632d4ca5fb9f, National Council on Crime & Delinquency. Deal, T. M. (2018). Still, based on patterns before COVID-19, along with mid-pandemic communications and reports, we predict that the data will reveal steeper rates of decline in juvenile arrest. (2020b). https://www.ncdps.gov/blog/2020/04/14/state-juvenile-justice-officials-reduce-juveniles-held-custody-institute-operational, Kochhar, R., & Barroso, A. Issue brief: COVID-19 practice, policy & emergency protocols in state juvenile facilities. Reports of percentages of youths released over the one to two-month timeframe since the COVID-19 outbreak ranged from 25% (e.g., North Carolina and Illinois), to 30% (e.g., Maryland), to nearly 40% (e.g., Maine). (1992). States and agencies accomplished this by simultaneously bottlenecking paths for new intakes (e.g., fewer arrests, technical violations) and clearing the way for avenues that facilitated earlier releases and increased use of alternatives to confinement. Given such developments, along with theoretical supports further explicated below, as COVID-19 stay-at-home and social distancing restrictions gradually loosen, we anticipate that rates of juvenile delinquent behavior will increase compared to rates when stricter COVID-19 mitigation measures were in effect. Our theoretical arguments integrate components and findings based in opportunity theories and changes to youths’ routine activities and time use, as well as aspects of youths’ peer associations and informal social control agents (e.g., caregiver monitoring, adult supervision). But does that mean that there is no solution to it. Juvenile delinquency is also known as teenage crime. https://apnews.com/bbb7adc88d3fa067c5c1b5c72a1a8aa6. As such stressors become amplified by ever-changing protocols, any seasoned system administrator, staff, and even longer-term resident can foresee the impending storm of disarray. Pediatrics, 129(1), 232–246. Hoeben, E. M., Meldrum, R. C., Walker, D. A., & Young, J. T. (2016). We predict that these pandemic-related ordinances, like stay-at-home and social distancing orders, have led to a decline in rates of delinquency. (2017). Justice by geography: Urban, suburban, and rural variations in juvenile justice administration. Relaxing restrictions will also facilitate movement among motivated offenders whose abilities to be in places where crime, particularly property crime, could occur were previously limited. Juvenile delinquency defined and explained with examples. https://www.nccdglobal.org/blog/covid-19-and-justice-system, National Juvenile Defender Center [NJDC]. In this paper, we consider how the current public health crisis may affect this balance. In R. J. Bonnie, R. L. Johnson, B. M. Chemers, & J. Online Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/reentry_aftercare/overview.html, Ohio Department of Youth Services [ODYS]. Along with not allowing volunteers, we found nearly all states have also suspended visitation with family, loved ones, mentors, and advocates. Pew research center. To forecast the immediate future, we draw from decades of research on juvenile delinquency and the justice system, as well as from reported patterns of reactions and responses to an unprecedented and ongoing situation. Juvenile delinquency Clemens Bartollas Allyn and Bacon, c2003 6th ed : pbk Perhaps the most anticipated changes to adolescent risk are the social connections and opportunities for delinquent behavior during COVID-19. New York: NYU Press. HuffPost is part of Verizon Media. Juvenile delinquency Man Spits At Boy For Wearing Mask, Says 'You Now Have Coronavirus': Cops Jason Copenhaver of Florida was charged with simple battery and disorderly conduct. The evolution of the juvenile court: Race, politics, and the criminalizing of juvenile justice. Osgood, D. W., Anderson, A. L., & Shaffer, J. N. (2005). Crime and Justice, 10(1), 117–170. Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Hoge, R. D. (1990). Similarly, stay-at-home orders have further restricted many juveniles from interacting with those of proximal closeness in their own neighborhoods. Haynie, D. L., & Osgood, D. W. (2005). For adolescents, simply being in the company of peers makes deviance easier and more rewarding (Osgood, Wilson, O'Malley, Bachman, & Johnston, 1996). As alternatives, diverted youths might be placed on electric monitoring or house arrest or even have detainment deferred until after the pandemic crisis has passed (Kees, 2020). (2020). Altschuler, D. M., & Armstrong, T. (1994). Reconsidering peers and delinquency: How do peers matter? Statistical briefing book. Associated Press. Along these same lines, youths showing progress and with release plans already in place were often the first discharged. Advocates have similarly called on prosecutors to facilitate release rather than detaining youths (YCLJ, 2020), along with calls on probation and parole to limit (or entirely end) revocations for technical violations and further reduce the number of confined juveniles. Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention [OJJDP]. Many law enforcement agencies, for instance, progressively expanded their use of informal diversion and reduced arrest with juveniles (outside of felony incidents) well before the COVID-19 outbreak. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82(1), 156–210. The executive order further requires that CDHS review all non-violent youths’ cases and release all youths deemed eligible for early discharge (e.g., see Colorado Executive Order D 2020 034, 2020). Yet, most school systems remain closed and the fate of summer camps and other structured time use for youths remains undecided. Employment situation summary. As an example, in some cases, caseworkers have reduced or entirely suspended official check-ins, home visits, or drug testing for clients classified as having fewer immediate risks or needs. Rethinking juvenile justice. Preliminary data suggests that advocates’ and experts’ call for expedited reductions in the numbers of youths confined have not gone unheard. As an example of the impact of such orders, a Massachusetts advocacy group, Citizens for Juvenile Justice, indicated in early April that juvenile arrests and calls to law enforcement about juveniles were “way down” (Fadel, 2020). Cohen, S. (2002). As such, despite the 2008 financial crisis, juvenile arrests, court cases, and commitments continued patterns of decline started in 2005 (Puzzanchera & Hockenberry, 2019; OJJDP, 2019a). These programs progressively reflect wider varieties of interventions, evidence-based practices, and models (e.g., risk/need/responsivity models [RNR], see Andrews, Bonta, & Hoge, 1990) and are increasingly offered in community-based, as opposed to institutional, settings (Hockenberry, 2018). School shutdowns, coupled with caregivers who may be working from home, furloughed, or recently unemployed as a result of COVID-19, implies that youths are under more adult supervision. Regardless of jurisdictional nuances in release authority, the factors considered in determining eligibility for early or emergency release due to COVID-19 appear relatively similar across agencies. Advocacy and collaborative health care for justice-involved youth. Evidence reflects a steady reduction in juvenile arrest, down 74% from rates just two decades ago (OJJDP, 2019a). Part of Springer Nature. A few days later a revised document was shared with families, explaining policies permitting free video chats via the Zoom platform; however, the document underscored that free “Zoom video visitation will only occur during the COVID-19 emergency response” (ODYS, 2020b). The curve for violence tends to peak later than that for property crimes. Why inequality could spread COVID-19. Secondly, we hope agencies and states increasingly recognize the harm that comes from fines, fees, and costs associated with maintaining connections with community supports and/or probation conditions. Green, D. A. Hawdon, J. E. (1999). From our analysis of what has occurred with juveniles and the justice system since COVID-19, we cautiously explicate ensuing predictions of what is likely to occur as sectors gradually reopen and additional social restrictions are lifted. This point also serves to underscore the fact that reductions in confined populations are not absolute reductions across the juvenile system. Wright, A. L., Sonin, K., Driscoll, J., & Wilson, J. Recommendations for youth justice systems during COVID-19 emergency. Such stay-at-home mandates further increase the likelihood that caregivers are aware of youths’ movements and activities. Unstructured leisure in the after-school hours. However, specific versions of the curve vary in significant ways. Addressing juvenile crime: What have we learned, and how should we proceed? New York: Oxford University Press. Agnew, R. (2001). In many states, administrators and agencies have ramped up efforts to process juveniles swiftly and to divert them away from confinement. Unstructured socializing and rates of delinquency. https://yclj.org/covid19statement, Department of Criminal Justice, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA, College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA, Department of Sociology and Criminology & Law, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, You can also search for this author in Subsequent results provide a growing evidence base as to how (and how not) to prevent or respond to juvenile deviance. Second, at some point schools will reopen and youths will again find themselves with less unsupervised time and in fewer unsupervised situations. (2019a). The Annie E. Casey Foundation Blog. Especially, in a family the most important role is played by the parents and siblings. The most recent civil citation data provided by FDJJ (2020) support this notion.Footnote 3 Exploration of these data reveal that, from February to March 2020, law enforcement’s community-based encounters dropped nearly 9% (see Appendix Fig. For example, technologies allowing virtual check-ins have become integral to managing community-based workloads and an influx of new community-based clients during COVID-19. Theories like social bond and general strain note the maintenance of social ties, especially family supports, as an integral element for treatment success, facilitating smoother reintegration post-confinement, and reducing recidivism (Altschuler & Armstrong, 1994). Justice Policy Institute. Hirschi, T. (1969). Molly Buchanan. Nevertheless, in order to promote proper social distancing and help “flatten the curve”, most settings where youths congregate closed indefinitely by late March (e.g., school campuses, childcare facilities). Juvenile Delinquency has been a critical issue over decades of years in the United States of America.The Juveniles have been violating the laws deliberately or due to ignorance which has significantly found them in problems associated. Prior to COVID-19, it was standard practice in Massachusetts that youths within 1 month (i.e., 30 days) of their projected release were considered for early discharge (Fadel, 2020). The near 9% decline in reported community-based contact is a difference of 742 youths versus 679 youths in February and March 2020, respectively. “If gangs are dealing drugs or selling stolen merchandise, gang members can become wealthy. To be sure, COVID-19 continues to present unprecedented challenges for all juvenile justice systems. Online Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/court/qa06201.asp?qaDate=2018, Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention [OJJDP]. Child well-being. Young workers likely to be hard hit as COVID-19 strikes a blow to restaurants and other service sector jobs. Lastly, social control theories (e.g., see Hirschi, 1969) suggest that parental supervision and monitoring are key protective factors against juvenile delinquency (Liu & Miller, 2020). Florida Department of Juvenile Justice [FDJJ]. Nevertheless, on any given day in 2018 nearly 195,000 youths were still detained in facilities across the U.S. (OJJDP, 2020b). [presentation slides]. Similar to law enforcement, courts’ decisions to handle cases informally or formally can also impact youths’ entrenchment in the justice system. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Often as a last resort, law enforcement officers arrest youths and refer them to juvenile courts, yet, there are opportunities for informal warnings or for diversion into community-based services. Statistical briefing book. (2013). Cash-strapped officials and institutions were forced to rethink protocols, practices, and policies, especially if reforms promised more cost-effective results. Compare the approach that two different Californian cities take to deal Prior to COVID-19, it took 7 years (i.e., 2010–2017) to achieve the same reduction in number of detained youths (AECF, 2020). As such, if such changes were not met with alternative options like video chats or increased opportunities for email or phone use, the loss of in-person visitation almost certainly sparked fear and anxiety among residents. 210–237). As data become available they will be informative as to how the predicted declines trend across different demographics, including by race, socioeconomic status, or even geographically. Companions in crime: The social aspects of criminal conduct. Altogether, once businesses open back up and juveniles are permitted to move more freely throughout their communities, it is likely that the prevalence and incidence of delinquent behavior would rise. In the next section, our attention turns towards this population and the impact of COVID-19 on the juvenile justice system, its practices and protocols, as well as the essential employees ensuring the system’s continued operation during the pandemic. Harvell, S., Warnberg, C., Matei, A., & Mensing, E. (2020). (2020). "National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Correspondingly, the number of detained youths dropped 42% since 2010 (OJJDP, 2019b). 1–14. As post-pandemic studies on juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice proliferate, we urge careful consideration as to how they might influence societal and the system responses to youths’ delinquency. Even in times of declining delinquency rates, the mere confluence of crisis, conservative rhetoric, political climate, and media hype can entirely trump deep-rooted paternalistic approaches to youths (e.g., Get Tough era) (Bernard, 1992). Juvenile delinquency is also simply called delinquency, and the two terms are used interchangeably in popular discourse. For many poor inner-city youths, juvenile delinquency begins with participation in the drug trade. There is also a growing percentage of petitioned yet non-adjudicated cases that may require youths to meet certain conditions, such as drug counseling or community service, prior to full case dismissal (OJJDP, 2020a). Berkeley: University of California Press. This paper reflects on the topics and patterns of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice within an unprecedented context of a global public health crisis. Viewing juveniles and the justice system through the lens of the current public health crisis casts even more light on systemic social inequities and disparities in the privilege to avoid not only justice system contact (Peck, 2016) but also COVID-19 (Ahmed, Ahmed, Pissarides, & Stiglitz, 2020; Wright, Sonin, Driscoll, & Wilson, 2020). Similar “fast tracked” discharges target lower risk, nonviolent youths, with decisions most often based off of youths’ progress, risks, needs, and the system’s ability to meet those needs in the community. Civil citation & other alternatives to arrest dashboard. In sum, Osgood, Anderson, and Shaffer (2005) found that the confluence of peer presence, lax supervision, and unrestricted use of time was most conducive to increased likelihoods of delinquency. Policy Review, 74(1), 12–17. As many states begin phased reopening strategies and lift stay-at-home restrictions, speculation surrounding the effects of such changes on juvenile delinquency is increasing. Urban poverty and the family context of delinquency: A new look at structure and process in a classic study. Washington, DC: Department of Justice. Given all of the changes brought about by COVID-19 protocols, we turn our attention to what we might expect for the system and for juvenile delinquency as things return to a new normal. Letter to DYS families: FAQ coronavirus (COVID-19). JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 1. We consider the impact of these pandemic-related changes on twenty-first century youths, their behaviors, and their separate justice system. The timing is right for accelerating reforms that continue to be in the best interest of youths. Across all offense levels, the median commitment length was 4 months; for youths committed as a result of technical violations (e.g., violating conditions of probation), the median length of confinement was about 2.5 months (Puzzanchera & Hockenberry, 2019). In assessing the impact of COVID-19 on juveniles who are at risk for or involved in delinquency, we need to remain cognizant of sociodemographic factors that are directly relevant to both delinquency and disease. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor. To protect privacy, no contact and employer/agency names or identifying information are reported. Causes of delinquency. This entails confirming that supports are not only in place but also actually available and accessible with continuing operations during the pandemic. 206–227). Around the same mid-March timeframe, responses began rolling out coast-to-coast, first at a crawling pace that soon felt like a sprint; the catchphrase “social distancing” morphed from a trending sound bite into increasingly specific protocols, stay-at-home orders, and closures of entire economic and social sectors. (2020a). American Sociological Review, 61(4), 635–655. These services engage juveniles, their families, educators, community organizations and stakeholders, plus an extensive aftercare team. Osgood, D. W., & Anderson, A. L. (2004). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest nor competing interests. 1). Greater promotion of evidence-based practices materialized (Lane, 2018; National Research Council, 2013), partly as a result of similarly-timed collective shifts toward more restorative and rehabilitative ideals, especially as applied to juveniles (Ahlin, Gibbs, Kavanaugh, & Lee, 2017; Green, 2015). They are just as worried for their loved ones as everyone else. Community supervision COVID-19 guidance and tips. Additional lower risk clients who are identified as having adequate alternative supports (e.g., family supervision) may find themselves with fewer probation/parole conditions to meet. Am J Crim Just 45, 578–600 (2020). Juvenile delinquency must be distinguished from the socially dangerous actions of those minors who are too young to be held criminally responsible. The North Carolina Juvenile Justice Division, for example, promoted using alternatives to detention for youths with minor technical violations, in aims to further reduce the number of youths confined across their state (Kees, 2020). (2016). (2020c). To explore common protocols and/or practices that emerged in response to COVID-19, we undertook an abbreviated web search for official reports by local and state agencies from geographic distributions across the U.S.Footnote 1 We also reviewed local or national media coverage and solicited anecdotal insights from personal communications with essential employees working in policing or other juvenile justice arenas.Footnote 2 While this research design may undermine generalizability, all trends and patterns discussed herein were reported across two or more sources or modes of communication; several jurisdictions reported similar protocols, changes, or innovations in response to COVID-19. As caregivers return to work but other prosocial institutions, such as school and extra-curricular activities are still unauthorized, youths will be left with considerable amounts of unstructured and unsupervised time. When school-based encounters are included, the reported contacts declined from 1384 youths in February to 982 youths in March 2020. First and foremost, from a routine activities perspective (Cohen & Felson, 1979), as stay-at-home orders are lifted, movement of suitable targets will slowly increase, thereby creating opportunities. Program staff report that the substitutes for “school” are not going over smoothly and both staff and youths are growing increasingly frustrated with the changes (CJJA, 2020a). To expedite releases, staff in North Carolina are reviewing and flagging cases of youths “who might be appropriate for release” before bringing the cases for judicial approval (Kees, 2020). To be sure, releasing youths to the community after confinement involves a certain infrastructure that is relevant to all agencies; however, the implementation of even barebones protocols must be scaled to meet the needs of very differently sized juvenile populations. Mason, M. & McDowell, R. (2020). (2015). (1988). In 2008 there were 6,318 arrests for every 100,000 youths age 10 to 17 in the resident population (Law Enforcement and Juvenile Crime, 2008). This “fit” is also pertinent to academic services for youths who are confined in facilities where access to teachers and formal learning opportunities were suspended indefinitely. This trend, however, is not necessarily new to law enforcement’s playbook for handling juveniles. (2020b). The number of youths confined varies significantly across states, which all have differently sized juvenile populations, different ages of juvenile jurisdiction (e.g., 16 or 17), plus different reform efforts prior to COVID-19. Both Maine and Maryland confine youths at rates below the estimated national average (i.e., 138 per 100,000 juveniles; OJJDP, 2019b); yet, these two states have starkly different numbers of youths confined, comparing 90 to 500 respectively (OJJDP, 2020b). Juvenile justice model data project: Final technical report. This is a key consideration for agency and state administrators, as managing caseloads on the front and backends of the system entails effectively allocating resources. As of last report in 2017, there were approximately 43,500 juveniles institutionalized throughout the country (OJJDP, 2019b). The effect of youth diversion programs on recidivism: A meta-analytic review. Many agencies lack the technologies (or necessary budgets) that have rapidly emerged as the preferred alternative to face-to-face instruction. Some states are gearing up for a controlled return of tourism by increasingly permitting hotel and rental reservations for the coming summer months. There is a growing concern that how to reduce crimes that are the result of poverty. Over a month’s time, these reductions grew out of a confluence of fewer new admissions/intakes, plus a rise in the rates at which states were releasing youths from secure facilities (AECF, 2020). This question segues to the next topics of jurisdictional differences in a) which agencies or stakeholders actually hold the authority to release youths and b) how hurried decisions to release youths (or not) are made. Such practices were also economically attractive, with far lower costs for community-based alternatives (e.g., $75 per day, on average) compared to confinement (e.g., $407.58 per day, on average; see Justice Policy Institute, 2014). Feld, B. C. (1991). The Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice responded to COVID-19-related staffing concerns with an even more innovative approach by implementing rotating “teams” of staff who work together in direct care for 14 days (i.e., 2 weeks on) and then work remotely from home the following two weeks (i.e., 2 weeks “off”). (2020). To be sure, the trending push to reduce facility populations as low as possible is aimed at reducing risk for youths who remain confined in congregate settings. So at this time, if any injury or disappointment occurs, they are plunged into the darkness of despair. Thus, assuming the pandemic is no longer affecting closures and that the economy recovers, we would not anticipate any spike in delinquency to be long lasting. Still, two important things must be considered. 4).Footnote 4 Focusing on the February to March interval over the past 4 years, such declines in community-based encounters appear somewhat unprecedented; since 2016, on average, eligible youth contacts in March were 15.1% greater than February contacts (see Appendix Fig. They also list valid concerns about using remote hearings for juvenile cases, such as issues with due process considerations and general barriers to attorney effectiveness in their juvenile clients’ cases (NJDC, 2020). Days later, yet another letter to families announced that ODYS was “rolling out” video visitation through a private telecommunications provider, which would allow 20-min paid video visits (ODYS, 2020c). Alternatively, in Colorado, statutory authority for release decisions typically lies with the parole board. Juvenile reform centers get P1 billion proposed budget - Senate office ABS-CBN News Posted at Feb 13 02:54 PM The proposed national budget now includes P1 billion for the construction of the juvenile reform centers, a Senate office said Wednesday, almost 2 weeks after the House of Representatives approved a bill lowering the minimum age of criminal liability to 12. https://www.colorado.gov/governor/2020-executive-orders, Council of Juvenile Justice Administrators [CJJA]. Such routines, consistency in programming, and scheduled therapeutic recreational activities also serve to reduce anxieties. 2); when law enforcement’s school-based encounters with youths are included, this same month-to-month decline was near 30% (see Appendix Fig. 16, No. We and our partners will store and/or access information on your device through the use of cookies and similar technologies, to display personalised ads and content, for ad and content measurement, audience insights and product development. Riots, escapes, and pepper spray: Virus hits juvenile centers. For these youths, juvenile delinquency Research Paper topics California is known having. Delinquency: a new look at structure and process in a classic study two! In 2017, there were approximately 43,500 juveniles institutionalized throughout the country ( OJJDP 2019b... Of people below the age of 18 do peers matter norms of society 2020-40,! 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